Tropical rain forests are treasure houses of biodiversity, but there has been no effective way to inventory and monitor their plant species over large areas. As a result, we have limited understanding of how climate change, clearing, invasive plants, and other threats are affecting these delicate ecosystems. A major advance in improving this situation is in the works, however. Gregory Asner of the Carnegie Institution’s Department of Global Ecology was just awarded a $1.8 million grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation to create a database of plant chemical and remote sensing signatures for tropical forest species. This large ground-based “Spectranomics Project” will expand Carnegie’s unique aerial mapping and remote-sensing capabilities to inventory and track rain forest vegetation around the globe, and it will enhance the value of satellite observations over tropical forest regions.
Tested and proven in the rain forests of Hawaii, the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO), designed and operated by Asner and Carnegie's Department of Global Ecology, is uniquely positioned to undertake large-area ecological studies. With its instrumentation, techniques, and algorithms, the CAO can map forest canopy chemistry over nearly 40,000 acres per day. The system is highly portable, flown aboard a fixed-wing aircraft. The CAO uses a waveform LiDAR (light detection and ranging) system that maps the 3-dimensional structure of vegetation and combines it with advanced spectroscopic imaging. By analyzing different wavelengths of reflected light, this imaging reveals an area’s biochemistry in stunningly beautiful 3-D maps from the treetops to the forest floors. However, like most airborne or space-based instrumentation, the CAO is hampered by a lack of on-the-ground data about the chemical properties of rain forest vegetation. The MacArthur grant provides funding for Asner’s team to collect this much-needed information.
“This grant will allow our team to accomplish something that’s never been done before,” commented Asner. “The Spectranomics Project will help us to build a species database in different tropical forests of Africa, Southeast Asia, Amazonia, the Caribbean, and the western Pacific. Information derived from the project will be a huge boost for rain forest mapping, and thus for conservation and management around the world.”
Asner’s team will strategically collect plant samples on foot and analyze their properties to establish a library with chemical fingerprints of thousands of individual species. Spectroscopic measurements will also be performed to link the chemistry to light-reflecting spectra that can later be obtained from the air.
The database will be available on the web for researchers to use and there will be video and other educational materials for public outreach. For more information about the spectranomics database and the Carnegie Airborne Observatory see http://spectranomics.stanford.edu/
The Carnegie Institution (www.CIW.edu) has been a pioneering force in basic scientific research since 1902. It is a private, nonprofit organization with six research departments throughout the U.S. Carnegie scientists are leaders in plant biology, developmental biology, astronomy, materials science, global ecology, and Earth and planetary science. https://www.ciw.edu/
The Department of Global Ecology, located in Stanford, California, was established in 2002 to help build the scientific foundations for a sustainable future. Its scientists conduct basic research on a wide range of large-scale environmental issues, including climate change, ocean acidification, biological invasions, and changes in biodiversity. http://globalecology.stanford.edu/DGE/CIWDGE/CIWDGE.HTML
The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation supports creative people and effective institutions committed to building a more just, verdant, and peaceful world. In addition to selecting the MacArthur Fellows, the Foundation works to defend human rights, advance global conservation and security, make cities better places, and understand how technology is affecting children and society. With assets of $7 billion, the Foundation makes approximately $300 million in grants annually. More information is at www.macfound.org.